“Dresses” redirects here. For the song by Betty Blowtorch, see
Betty Blowtorch § Discography
It consists of a top piece that covers the torso and hangs down over the legs. A dress can be any one-piece garment containing a skirt of any length. Dresses can be formal or informal. In many cultures, dresses are more often worn by women and girls.
Dresses are generally suitable for both general and
in the West for women and children.
In the 11th century, women in
wore dresses that were similar to men’s tunics and were loose, with a hemline reaching to below the knees or lower.
By the end of the century, these dresses featured a tighter fit on the arms and women’s upper bodies.
Dresses were made snug by featuring slits on the sides of the dress that were pulled tight in order to fit a woman’s figure.
Undergarments were not worn underneath.
dictated what kinds of dresses women were allowed to wear.
French dresses were known as
In Italy, dresses were known as
Women’s dresses in
during both the 16th and 17th centuries identified a woman’s place in society or their family.
, as a center of textile production, was a particularly noted area of innovation in dress during this time period.
During this time period, in Spain and Portugal, women wore
However, in England and France, dresses became more “naturally” shaped.
Lace and slashing were popular decorations.
Skirts were full, with regular folds and the overskirt allowed the display of an underskirt of contrasting fabric.
Necklines became lower as well.
Embroidery that reflected scientific discoveries, such as new animals and plants discovered were popular.
, the multiple-piece dresses were also popular, though less luxurious.
Wealthy women living in the Spanish or Dutch colonies in the Americas copied the fashions that were popular from their homelands.
The three-piece dress, which had a bodice, petticoat and gown, were popular until the last 25 years, in which the
, or a one-piece gown, became more popular.
became more important in dresses by the 1680s.
Working women, and women in
slavery in the Americas
, used simple patterns to create shifts, wool or linen petticoats and gowns and cotton dresses.
The bottoms of the skirts could be tucked into the waistband when a woman was near fire when near a cooking or heating source.
Large, triangular silhouettes were favored during the 18th century, skirts were wide and supported by hoop underskirts.
One-piece gowns remained popular until the middle of the century.
During the 1760s in France, hoop petticoats were reduced in size.
Lighter colors and lighter fabrics were also favored.
In Colonial America, women most often wore a gown and petticoat, in which the skirt of the gown opened to reveal the
Women also had
which consisted of the petticoat, jacket and a waistcoat.
French fashion regarding dresses became very fast-changing during the later part of the 18th century.
Throughout this period, the length of fashionable dresses varied only slightly, between ankle-length and floor-sweeping.
Between 1740 and 1770, the
robe à la française
was very popular with upper-class women.
This style was more simple and was also favored by
Other types of dresses that were popular during the revolution included tunic dresses and the
negligée à la patriot,
which featured the red, white and blue colors, symbolic of the revolution.
Early 19th century dress.
Women’s dresses in the 19th century began to be classified by the time of day or purpose of the dress.
High-waisted dresses were popular until around 1830.
Early nineteenth century dresses in Russia were influenced by
and were made of thin fabrics, with some dresses being semi-transparent.
Elizabeth Vigée Le Brun
wore these types of dresses with a short skirt (reaching to her ankles) when she lived in Russia between 1785 and 1801.
Many Russian women copied her style.
By the 1840s, Russian women were turning to what was in fashion in Europe.
then fullness was draped and drawn to the back.
Dresses had a “day” bodice with a high
and long sleeves, and an “evening” bodice with a low neckline (
) and very short sleeves. In Russia, metal hoopskirts were known as “malakhovs.”
Skirts of the 1860s were heavily decorated.
To sleep, women in the American West wore floor-length dresses of white
with high collars displaying decoration.
Navajo women further adapted the European designs, incorporating their own sense of beauty, “creating
These patterns were graded by size, which was a new innovation.
Women in the United States who were involved in
in the 1850s found themselves the center of attention, both positive and negative.
By 1881, the
Rational Dress Society
had formed in reaction to the restrictive dress of the era.
Model posing in a glamorous 1930s evening gown.
In the early twentieth century, the look popularized by the
The upper part of women’s dresses in the
included a “pigeon breast” look that gave way to a corseted waist and an s-shaped silhouette.
Women called their dresses “waists” if one-piece, or ”
,” if it consisted of a skirt and a blouse.
The bodice of the dresses had a boned lining.
Informally, wealthy women wore
These garments were looser, though not as loose as a “wrapper,” and made of expensive fabric and laces.
By 1910, the Edwardian look was replaced with a straighter silhouette.
, had a huge impact on the look of the time.
Designs developed by Poiret were available in both boutiques and also in
Popular dresses of the time were one-piece and included
which could be layered.
Another innovation of the 1910s was the ready availability of factory-made clothing.
Waistlines started out high and by 1915 were below the natural waist.
By 1920, waistlines were at hip-level.
Between 1910 and 1920 necklines were lower and dresses could be short-sleeved or sleeveless.
Women who worked during
World War I
preferred shorter dresses, which eventually became the dominant style overall.
In addition to the shorter dresses, waistlines were looser and the dominant colors were black, white and gray.
By 1920, the “new woman” was a trend that saw lighter fabrics and dresses that were easier to put on.
Younger women were also setting the trends that older women started to follow.
The dresses of the 1920s could be pulled over the head, were short and straight.
It was acceptable to wear sleeveless dresses during the day.
dresses were popular until end of the decade.
World War II
, dresses were slimmer and inspired by military uniforms.
After WWII, the New Look, promoted by
was very influential on fashion and the look of women’s dresses for about a decade.
Since the 1970s, no one dress type or length has dominated fashion for long, with short and ankle-length styles often appearing side-by-side in fashion magazines and catalogs.
Types of dresses
Gown or Long Dress
– a woman’s formal dress, usually having a floor-length skirt.
is a term used since the late 1960s
for ankle-length, typically informal dresses.
– a “midi” is used to refer to any dress or skirt that has a hem which hits at mid-calf – halfway between the knee and ankle.
dress- Hemline ends at knee height.
(1960s) – a very short dress that terminates above the knee.
(right) with minidresses, 2008.- A microdress is an extremely short version of a mini.
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